How to cultivate cassava? Cassava or TREE WHO or UBI KAYU is one of the food crops source of carbohydrates besides rice and corn. Cassava in Latin called Manihot utilissima is a source of basic food substitute for rice. Cassava cultivation in Indonesia spread evenly throughout the territory of the homeland, from plains, middle to highlands. Cassava other than used as a source of staple food is also used as raw material for snacks, such as cassava chips, cakes, and ingredients for making tapioca and other processed dishes. It is said that cassava comes from the mainland of South America, then spread to Brazil, Paraguay and now cassava plants spread throughout the world. Young cassava leaves are widely used as a vegetable and fodder. In Indonesia there are several types of superior cassava varieties such as cassava and cassava cassava or borneo cassava.
Requirement to Cultivate Cassava Plant
Cassava is known as a plant that can grow anywhere with any condition. However, for cassava plants to grow and produce properly, a suitable environmental condition is needed. The main requirement of growing cassava is sunlight, this plant requires enough sunshine throughout the day. Cassava plants require a climate with rainfall between 1500 – 2500 mm / year, with a minimum air temperature of 10 degrees Celsius with humidity 60-65%. Soil type suitable for cultivation of cassava is soil rich in organic material, fertile, loose, not too tough and not too porous. The desired soil pH is neutral, ie between 6.5 and 7.5. Cassava plants can still be planted at an altitude of up to 1500 mdpl and the ideal height is 10 – 700 mdpl. There is a question “Cassava is grown on good sandy soil or not?” In the sandy clay of cassava plants can grow well. However, this plant is poorly planted in sand soils, because the ability of the sand to hold water is so small that cassava can not grow and produce with maximum.
Tips and tricks on how to cultivate cassava
Preparing Land for Cultivation of Cassava
Soil for cultivation of cassava must first be spewed by plowing or hoeing. Then sowing agricultural lime or dolomite if the soil pH is below 6.5. Cassava plants do not like watery soils, mud and soil prone to water if the rainy season. Therefore it is necessary to make beds or bunds with width, height and length of beds adjusted to the condition of the land. Beds should be made not too high for easy loosening later. Distance between beds 50-60 cm. If necessary, or if the cultivation of cassava is not too fertile it needs to be sown as manure fertilizer base on the bed. The dosage of manure is adjusted to the level of soil fertility and the availability of manure. After that the land is left for about 10 days before the planting is done.
How to prepare Cassava Seeds
Cassava is propagated by means of stem cuttings, namely by cutting the cassava stems with a length of 20 cm. A good seed is a seed that comes from a plant that is quite old, ie plants that are aged 10 or 12 months. Choose a good plant stem, big, buds eyes and free from disease. Good cassava stalk part for the seed is the middle, which is 30 cm above the base of the stem and 30 cm below the lowest leaves are still attached when harvested. Stem cuttings can be cut flat or slanted according to taste. The advantage of cutting sloping sticks is to have a wider cross section allowing more roots to grow.
How to plant Cassava Seeds
Stem cuttings or cassava seeds immediately planted after being cut into pieces. Plant cassava seeds as deep as 1/3 of the length of stem cuttings, be careful when planting seeds, pay attention to buds and do not upside down. Stem cuttings or flat-cut seedlings planted perpendicular, while if cut incline then planted must be tilted as well. Spacing between 60 – 70 cm (distance between plants) and the distance between rows 90 – 100 cm. Planting of cassava seeds should be done at the beginning of the rainy season, because cassava plants aged 0 – 5 months are in need of water and susceptible to dry weather.
How to maintain Cassava Plant
After the planting process is complete, the next step is to maintain and maintain. Maintenance needs to be done include embroidery, weeding, loosening budding, fertilization and loosening aft.
- 7 – 10 days after planting immediately check whether cassava plants are dead or not grow. Immediately do embroidery if there are dead seeds, do not grow buds, or do not grow well.
- Do weeding and cleansing of wild grass or weeds that grow around cassava plants. If possible weeding should be done manually. However, if the cultivation of cassava is done large scale or broad weeding can be done by spraying herbicide. Use low-dose contact herbicides and spraying with care to avoid cassava stems and leaves. Avoid using contact herbicides, as they may affect the growth, quality and quantity of tubers.
- For cassava plants to bear maximum fruit, do pruning against plants that have many buds. Leave only two buds per tree. Discard shoots that grow less good or small, shoots are kept first buds in the top position. Pruning buds can be done when the height or length of buds on average has reached 25-30 cm.
- If the cassava grows less fertile it will need subsequent fertilization. Fertilization afters of cassava plants is done when the plants are 2 or 3 months old. Fertilizer used is a fertilizer containing elements of N, P and K with a balanced dose. Sprinkle fertilizer carefully around plants with a distance of 25-30 cm from the stem of the plant. Subsequent fertilization can be done up to two times in one growing season, depending on the condition of plant fertility.
- Pembubunan is the activity loosening land around the roots of cassava plants. Pembubunan done after fertilization afters, the way with raising the land that is between the beds (trenches) to be dumped around the plant. Pembubunan done to loosening soil so that cassava plants bear fruit and large lot.
How to harvest Cassava
Cassava plants can be harvested at the age of 6 – 8 months after planting or 9-12 months after planting depending on the variety planted. Cassava plant is harvested by removing the stem, if there are tubers that are broken or left in the ground use the hoe with caution.