Definition about hypertension. High blood pressure or hypertension is a chronic condition in which blood pressure increases. Hypertension can occur for years without being noticed by the sufferer. Even, without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled hypertension can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart attacks and strokes.
To prevent hypertension, it is advisable to maintain ideal body weight, not smoking, regular exercise, and avoid stress. In addition, reduce the salt intake and eat foods rich in omega-3, potassium, calcium, and magnesium.
The Causes of Hypertension
The causes of high blood pressure or hypertension are divided into:
Primary hypertension: Primary hypertension attacks 90% of people with hypertension. The cause is not known with certainty and tends to occur gradually over the years. Lifestyle and genetic factors allegedly have an important role.
Secondary hypertension: Hypertension is known cause, occurs in 5-10% of people with hypertension. It usually appears suddenly and causes higher blood pressure than primary hypertension.
Some conditions and medications that can cause this type of hypertension include sleep apnea, kidney problems, adrenal gland tumors, thyroid problems, congenital defects in the blood vessels, and certain drugs (birth control pills, cold medicines, antinyeri drugs).
Diagnosis of high blood pressure or hypertension is very easy, ie by using pressure gauges. Blood pressure measurements are divided into four general categories:
- Normal blood pressure. Your blood pressure is normal if below 120/80 mm Hg.
- Praqualence is a systolic pressure that ranges from 120-139 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure ranging from 80-89 mm Hg. Prevalence tends to worsen over time.
- Hypertension stage 1 is a systolic pressure ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg, or diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99 mm Hg.
- Phase 2 hypertension is more severe. Hypertension stage 2 is a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher, or a diastolic pressure of 100 mm Hg or higher.
Your doctor may perform two to three blood pressure readings, each at three or more separate meetings before diagnosing you with hypertension. This is because blood pressure usually varies throughout the day.
In addition, your doctor may ask you to record your blood pressure at home and at work to provide additional information.
Sign and Symptoms of Hypertension
High blood pressure or hypertension often does not cause symptoms. However, in some people with very high blood pressure symptoms may appear:
- Chest pain or shortness of breath
However, these symptoms are not specific and only appear if blood pressure is too high and life threatening.
High Blood Pressure Treatment
The treatment of high blood pressure or hypertension is primarily by lifestyle modification. Healthy lifestyle that can be applied, including:
- Reduce salt intake
- Regular exercise
- Lose weight
- Quit smoking
Antihypertensive drugs are given if there is no change after lifestyle modification. There are many types of antihypertensive drugs consisting of ACE-inhibitors, beta-blockers, thiazides, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium chanel blockers, and so on.
All these drugs work to lower high blood pressure with different ways of working. Indications of drug administration also varies according to age, degree of hypertension, and other underlying diseases.
Initially the doctor will give one type of hypertension drug with the lowest dose and observed for some time. If not effective, then the doctor will increase the dose of the drug or add it with other antihypertensive drugs.